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Dairy, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk 

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: Prevention of Obesity and Related Diseases
: Gregory Miller22 15 Oct 2012
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes are major public health concerns. Nearly one-third of American adults have some form of CVD (1) while approximately 11% of adults have diabetes (2). Together these diseases account for over $600 billion annually in health care costs in the United States (3,4). Thus, the prevention of these chronic diseases is of utmost public health and economic importance and should be a priority of the USDA. There has been considerable scientific activity aiming to identify lifestyle factors that may contribute to the prevention of these chronic diseases. For example, the Diabetes Prevention Program trial was a landmark investigation showing that individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes can delay or avoid the disease through a lifestyle intervention involving diet and physical activity (5). In more recent years, specific dietary components have been identified in observational studies as having significant independent effects in reducing risk for CVD and type 2 diabetes. For example, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans stated that there was “moderate evidence… that intake of milk and milk products is associated with a reduced risk of CVD and type 2 diabetes and with lower blood pressure in adults.” Since the publication of the 2010 guidelines, epidemiological evidence in the area of dairy and metabolic disease has grown tremendously. There have been 17 observational studies and/or meta-analyses published since 2010 alone that have further reinforced the role of dairy consumption on reducing risk for CVD, elevated blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, or type 2 diabetes (6-22); however, there are limited data available in the form of randomized controlled trials and investigations focusing on potential mechanisms to explain these observed relationships. Given the consistent and robust nature of the observational evidence for dairy consumption reducing the risk for CVD and type 2 diabetes, there is a clear need for more research to further characterize the relationship between dairy consumption and reduction in metabolic disease risk as well as to determine the potential mechanisms by which dairy products may be acting to reduce disease risk. References 1. American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics--2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2010 Feb 23;121(7):e46-e215. 2. National Diabetes Statistics. 2011 [cited 2012 Oct 1]. Available from: http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/statistics/ 3. Ariza MA, Vimalananda VG, Rosenzweig JL. The economic consequences of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the United States. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2010 Mar;11(1):1-10. 4. Dall TM, Mann SE, Zhang Y, Quick WW, Seifert RF, Martin J, Huang EA, Zhang S. Distinguishing the economic costs associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Popul Health Manag. 2009 Apr;12(2):103-10. 5. Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA, Nathan DM; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med. 2002 Feb 7;346(6):393-403. 6. Bonthuis M, Hughes MC, Ibiebele TI, Green AC, van der Pols JC. Dairy consumption and patterns of mortality of Australian adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jun;64(6):569-77. 7. Dalmeijer GW, Struijk EA, van der Schouw YT, Soedamah-Muthu SS, Verschuren WM,Boer JM, Geleijnse JM, Beulens JW. Dairy intake and coronary heart disease or stroke-A population-based cohort study. Int J Cardiol. 2012 Apr 4. [Epub ahead of print] 8. de Oliveira Otto MC, Mozaffarian D, Kromhout D, Bertoni AG, Sibley CT, Jacobs DR Jr, Nettleton JA. Dietary intake of saturated fat by food source and incident cardiovascular disease: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Aug;96(2):397-404. 9. Fumeron F, Lamri A, Abi Khalil C, Jaziri R, Porchay-Baldérelli I, Lantieri O, Vol S, Balkau B, Marre M; Data from the Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) Study Group. Dairy consumption and the incidence of hyperglycemia and the metabolic syndrome: results from a French prospective study, Data from the Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR). Diabetes Care. 2011 Apr;34(4):813-7. 10. Grantham NM, Magliano DJ, Hodge A, Jowett J, Meikle P, Shaw JE. The association between dairy food intake and the incidence of diabetes in Australia: the Australian Diabetes Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). Public Health Nutr. 2012 Jun 7:1-7. [Epub ahead of print] 11. Larsson SC, Virtamo J, Wolk A. Dairy consumption and risk of stroke in Swedish women and men. Stroke. 2012 Jul;43(7):1775-80. 12. Malik VS, Sun Q, van Dam RM, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Rosner B, Hu FB. Adolescent dairy product consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Sep;94(3):854-61. 13. Margolis KL, Wei F, de Boer IH, Howard BV, Liu S, Manson JE, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Phillips LS, Shikany JM, Tinker LF; Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. A diet high in low-fat dairy products lowers diabetes risk in postmenopausal women. J Nutr. 2011 Nov;141(11):1969-74. 14. Ralston RA, Lee JH, Truby H, Palermo CE, Walker KZ. A systematic review and meta-analysis of elevated blood pressure and consumption of dairy foods. J Hum Hypertens. 2012 Jan;26(1):3-13. 15. Sluijs I, Forouhi NG, Beulens JW et al; on behalf of The InterAct Consortium. The amount and type of dairy product intake and incident type 2 diabetes: results from the EPIC-InterAct Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Aug;96(2):382-390. 16. Soedamah-Muthu SS, Ding EL, Al-Delaimy WK, Hu FB, Engberink MF, Willett WC, Geleijnse JM. Milk and dairy consumption and incidence of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan;93(1):158-71. 17. Soedamah-Muthu SS, Verberne LDM, Ding EL, Engberink MF, Geleijnse JM. Dairy consumption and incidence of hypertension : A dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Hypertension. Published online September 17, 2012. 18. Sonestedt E, Wirfält E, Wallström P, Gullberg B, Orho-Melander M, Hedblad B. Dairy products and its association with incidence of cardiovascular disease: the Malmö diet and cancer cohort. Eur J Epidemiol. 2011 Aug;26(8):609-18. 19. Struijk EA, Heraclides A, Witte DR, Soedamah-Muthu SS, Geleijnse JM, Toft U, Lau CJ. Dairy product intake in relation to glucose regulation indices and risk of type 2 diabetes. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012 Jul 23. [Epub ahead of print] 20. Tong X, Dong JY, Wu ZW, Li W, Qin LQ. Dairy consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Sep;65(9):1027-31. 21. van Meijl LE, Mensink RP. Low-fat dairy consumption reduces systolic blood pressure, but does not improve other metabolic risk parameters in overweight and obese subjects. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 May;21(5):355-61. 22. Warensjö E, Jansson JH, Cederholm T, Boman K, Eliasson M, Hallmans G, Johansson I, Sjögren P. Biomarkers of milk fat and the risk of myocardial infarction in men and women: a prospective, matched case-control study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jul;92(1):194-202. Epub 2010 May 19.

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